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PIXE Streaker References
Selected Streaker References describing applications and other information:

EPA Description
The EPA describes use of the earlier model S1P Streaker as a continuous monitor for elemental composition in: “Guidance for using continuous monitors in PM2.5 monitoring networks”, an EPA report, EPA-454/R-98/012, available at http://www.epa.gov/ttnamti1/files/ambient/pm25/r-98-012.pdf see 3-31, p. 71 of the pdf file.

Optical Transmission
The use of optical transmission for quickly estimating total mass of particulate matter is described in: “Hourly measurement of particulate concentrations with Streaker samplers and optical monitoring”, E. Filippi, P. Prati, A. Zucchiatti, F. Lucarelli, V. Ariola, P. Corvisiero, Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research B, vol. 150, p. 370, 1999.

Aircraft Sampling
Aircraft sampling using a modified version of an early Streaker sampler is described in: “Airborne Streaker sampling for PIXE analysis”, H.J. Annegarn, M. Flanz, T. Kenntner, M.A. Kneen, G. Helas, S.J. Piketh, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B, vol. 109, pp. 548 - 550, 1996. Note that the S2P Streaker has a stepping motor and external input, requiring only the isokinetic input sampling modifications for airborne sampling. Airborne sampling provides greater information on atmospheric transport than ground-based sampling.

Comparison to Reference Sampler
Comparisons of Streaker cut points with a standard reference sampler are presented in : “A testing technique of Streaker aerosol samplers via PIXE analysis,” P. Prati, A. Zucchiatti, S. Tonus, F. Lucarelli, P.A. Mondo, V. Ariola, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B, vol. 138 pp. 986 - 989, 1998 .

PIXE Analysis of Aerosols
The use of PIXE analysis for determining the chemical elemental composition of aerosols is described in EPA report, EPA/625/R-96/010a , “Compendium of Methods for the Determination of Inorganic Compounds in Ambient Air,” which is available at http://www.epa.gov/ttn/amtic/files/ambient/inorganic/mthd-3-6.pdf . Other analysis techniques are also described in the various sections of this report.




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